Rich Spontak

Professor

  • 919-515-4200
  • Engineering Building I (EB1) 2088E

Richard J. Spontak was a research scientist with Procter & Gamble before he joined the NCSU faculty in 1992. Spontak has over 104 publications in peer-reviewed journals, and his work has been featured on the cover of Microsc. Res. Tech. and Langmuir.

Spontak conducts studies to improve the current understanding of microstructural polymer systems, which are of scientific interest as self-assembling polymers and commercial value as adhesives, (bio)compatibilizing agents, nanotemplates, and membranes. His group’s efforts are at the cutting edge of block copolymer research: e.g., they have obtained the first 3D images of the bicontinuous gyroid (Ia3d) and sponge (L3) morphologies. They characterize polymers with electronspectroscopic microscopy, and dispersions/gels with freeze-fracture replication and cryo-TEM techniques. Use of these tools has expedited the study of block copolymers and their blends/gels, and has helped to elucidate novel polymer gelation mechanisms, PDLC composition/morphology relationships, and interpolymer complexation. Other areas of interest include polymer alloying through mechanical attrition, transmission electron microtemography, and modification of polymer solutions via salting-in.

Education

Ph.D. 1988

Chemical Engineering

University of California at Berkeley

B.S. 1983

Chemical Engineering

Pennsylvania State University

Research Description

Dr. Spontak's research interests include effects of homo/copolymer blending, molecular architecture, monomer sequencing, and solvation on the phase behavior of microstructural polymer systems.

Publications

Communication: Molecular-level description of constrained chain topologies in multiblock copolymer gel networks
Tuhin, M. O., Woloszczuk, S., Mineart, K. P., Pasquinelli, M. A., Sadler, J. D., Smith, S. D., … Spontak, R. J. (2018), Journal of Chemical Physics, 148(23). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5037231
Crystallization-Directed Anisotropic Electroactuation in Selectively Solvated Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomers: A Thermal and (Electro)Mechanical Property Study
Armstrong, D. P., & Spontak, R. J. (2018), ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 28(36). https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201803467
Effect of systematic hydrogenation on the phase behavior and nanostructural dimensions of block copolymers
Ashraf, A. R., Ryan, J. J., Satkowski, M. M., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2018), ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 10(4), 3186–3190.
Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Toroidal Micelles into Multidimensional Nanoporous Superstructures
Cai, J., Mineart, K. P., Li, X., Spontak, R. J., Manners, I., & Qiu, H. (2018), ACS MACRO LETTERS, 7(8), 1040–1045. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.8b00445
Incorporation of Metallic Species into Midblock-Sulfonated Block Ionomers
Deng, J., Yan, J., Tilly, J. C., Deng, L., Mineart, K. P., & Spontak, R. J. (2018), MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, 39(22). https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.201800427
Nafion/IL hybrid membranes with tuned nanostructure for enhanced CO2 separation: Effects of ionic liquid and water vapor
Dai, Z. D., Ansaloni, L., Ryan, J. J., Spontak, R. J., & Deng, L. Y. (2018), Green Chemistry, 20(6), 1391–1404.
Ordering and grain growth in charged block copolymer bulk films: A comparison of solvent-related processes
Ryan, J. J., Mineart, K. P., Lee, B., & Spontak, R. J. (2018), Advanced Materials Interfaces, 5(8).
Preparation of cellulose nanofibrils for imaging purposes: Comparison of liquid cryogens for rapid vitrification
Torstensen, J. O., Johnsen, P. O., Riis, H., Spontak, R. J., Deng, L. Y., Gregersen, O. W., & Syverud, K. (2018), Cellulose, 25(8), 4269–4274.
Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells containing a charged thermoplastic elastomeric gel electrolyte and hydrophilic/phobic photosensitizers
Al-Mohsin, H. A., Mineart, K. P., Armstrong, D. P., El-Shafei, A., & Spontak, R. J. (2018), Solar RRL, 2(3). https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.201770155
Swelling and free-volume characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril films
Torstensen, J. O., Liu, M., Jin, S. A., Deng, L. Y., Hawari, A. I., Syverud, K., … Gregersen, O. W. (2018), Biomacromolecules, 19(3), 1016–1025.
Thermoplastic Elastomer Systems Containing Carbon Nanofibers as Soft Piezoresistive Sensors
Turgut, A., Tuhin, M. O., Toprakci, O., Pasquinelli, M. A., Spontak, R. J., & Toprakci, H. A. K. (2018), ACS OMEGA, 3(10), 12648–12657. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b01740
Adhesion and friction in polymer films on solid substrates: Conformal sites analysis and corresponding surface measurements
An, R., Huang, L. L., Mineart, K. P., Dong, Y. H., Spontak, R. J., & Gubbins, K. E. (2017), Soft Matter, 13(19), 3492–3505.
Bicomponent block copolymers derived from one or more random copolymers as an alternative route to controllable phase behavior
Ashraf, A. R., Ryan, J. J., Satkowski, M. M., Lee, B., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 38(17).
Bottlebrush elastomers: A promising molecular engineering route to tunable, prestrain-free dielectric elastomers (conference presentation)
Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, M., Daniel, W. F. M., Zhushma, A. P., Li, Q. X., Morgan, B. J., Matyjaszewski, K., … Spontak, R. J. (2017), In Electroactive polymer actuators and devices (eapad) 2017 (Vol. 10163).
Bottlebrush elastomers: a new platform for freestanding electroactuation
Vatankhah-Varnoosfaderani, M., Daniel, W. F. M., Zhushma, A. P., Li, Q. X., Morgan, B. J., Matyjaszewski, K., … Sheiko, S. S. (2017), Advanced Materials, 29(2).
Complex phase behavior and network characteristics of midblock-solvated triblock copolymers as physically cross-linked soft materials
Woloszczuk, S., Tuhin, M. O., Gade, S. R., Pasquinelli, M. A., Banaszak, M., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9(46), 39940–39944. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b14298
Designing dielectric elastomers over multiple length scales for 21st century soft materials technologies
Armstrong, D. P., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 90(2), 207–224.
Effect of polyelectrolyte on the barrier efficacy of layer-by-layer nanoclay coatings
Soltani, I., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), Journal of Membrane Science, 526, 172–180.
Hydrothermal conditioning of physical hydrogels prepared from a midblock-sulfonated multiblock copolymer
Mineart, K. P., Dickerson, J. D., Love, D. M., Lee, B., Zuo, X. B., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 38(5).
Inherently pre-strained elastomers with self-healing property: New generation of freestanding electroactuators (conference presentation)
Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, M., Sheyko, S. S., Matyjaszewski, K., Daniel, W. F. M., Li, Q. X., Morgan, B. J., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), In Electroactive polymer actuators and devices (eapad) 2017 (Vol. 10163).
Molecular and morphological characterization of midblock-sulfonated styrenic triblock copolymers
Mineart, K. P., Ryan, J. J., Lee, B., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 55(6), 490–497.
Molecular dynamics study of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) asymmetric diblock copolymer systems
Dobies, M., Makrocka-Rydzyk, M., Jenczykt, J., Jarek, M., Spontak, R. J., & Jurga, S. (2017), Langmuir, 33(36), 8856–8868.
Nanoscale considerations responsible for diverse macroscopic phase behavior in monosubstituted isobutyl-POSS/poly(ethylene oxide) blends
Caydamli, Y., Yildirim, E., Shen, J. L., Fang, X. M., Pasquinelli, M. A., Spontak, R. J., & Tonelli, A. E. (2017), Soft Matter, 13(46), 8672–8677. https://doi.org/10.1039/c7sm01788j
Tuning the performance of aqueous photovoltaic elastomer gels by solvent polarity and nanostructure development
Al-Mohsin, H. A., Mineart, K. P., Armstrong, D. P., & Spontak, R. J. (2017), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 55(1), 85–95.
Microfibres and macroscopic films from the coordination-driven hierarchical self-assembly of cylindrical micelles
Lunn, D. J., Gould, O. E. C., Whittell, G. R., Armstrong, D. P., Mineart, K. P., Winnik, M. A., … Manners, I. (2016), Nature Communications, 7.
Multipurpose polymeric coating for functionalizing inert polymer surfaces
Ozcam, A. E., Efimenko, K., Spontak, R. J., Fischer, D. A., & Genzer, J. (2016), ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(8), 5694–5705.
Olefinic thermoplastic elastomer gels: Combining polymer crystallization and microphase separation in a selective solvent
Armstrong, D. P., Mineart, K. P., Lee, B., & Spontak, R. J. (2016), ACS Macro Letters, 5(11), 1273–1277.
Phase-change thermoplastic elastomer blends for tunable shape memory by physical design
Mineart, K. P., Tallury, S. S., Li, T., Lee, B., & Spontak, R. J. (2016), Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 55(49), 12590–12597. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.6b04039
Physical microfabrication of shape-memory polymer systems via bicomponent fiber spinning
Tallury, S. S., Pourdeyhimi, B., Pasquinelli, M. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2016), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 37(22), 1837–1843. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.201600235
Water-induced nanochannel networks in self-assembled block ionomers
Mineart, K. P., Al-Mohsin, H. A., Lee, B., & Spontak, R. J. (2016), Applied Physics Letters, 108(10).
A solvent-vapor approach toward the control of block lonomer morphologies
Mineart, K. P., Lee, B., & Spontak, R. J. (2016), Macromolecules, 49(8), 3126–3137.
Batching method and effects of formulation and mechanical loading on electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites filled with multi-wall carbon nanotube and carbon black
Hemkaew, K., Dechwayukul, C., Aiyarak, P., Spontak, R. J., & Thongruang, W. (2015), Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 10(3), 883–893.
Dual modes of self-assembly in superstrongly segregated bicomponent triblock copolymer melts
Woloszczuk, S., Mineart, K. P., Spontak, R. J., & Banaszak, M. (2015), Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, 91(1).
Highly flexible aqueous photovoltaic elastomer gels derived from sulfonated block ionomers
Al-Mohsin, H. A., Mineart, K. P., & Spontak, R. J. (2015), Advanced Energy Materials, 5(8).
Morphological investigation of midblock-sulfonated block ionomers prepared from solvents differing in polarity
Mineart, K. P., Jiang, X., Jinnai, H., Takahara, A., & Spontak, R. J. (2015), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 36(5), 432–438.
film-stabilizing attributes of polymeric core-shell nanoparticles
Cai, X. J., Yuan, H. M., Blencowe, A., Qiao, G. G., Genzer, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2015), ACS Nano, 9(8), 7940–7949.
Communication: Molecular-level insights into asymmetric triblock copolymers: Network and phase development
Tallury, S. S., Mineart, K. P., Woloszczuk, S., Williams, D. N., Thompson, R. B., Pasquinelli, M. A., … Spontak, R. J. (2014), Journal of Chemical Physics, 141(12). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4896612
Communication: Molecular-level insights into asymmetric triblock copolymers: Network and phase development (vol 141, 121103, 2014)
Tallury, S. S., Mineart, K. P., Woloszczuk, S., Williams, D. N., Thompson, R. B., Pasquinelli, M. A., … Spontak, R. J. (2014),
Dissipative particle dynamics of triblock copolymer melts: A midblock conformational study at moderate segregation
Tallury, S. S., Spontak, R. J., & Pasquinelli, M. A. (2014), Journal of Chemical Physics, 141(24). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4904388
Enhanced electroactive response of unidirectional elastomeric composites with high-dielectric-constant fibers
Subramani, K. B., Cakmak, E., Spontak, R. J., & Ghosh, T. K. (2014), Advanced Materials, 26(18), 2949–2953. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201305821
Evolution of homopolymer thin-film instability on surface-anchored diblock copolymers varying in composition
Cai, X. J., Genzer, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2014), Langmuir, 30(39), 11689–11695.
Toward the development of a versatile functionalized silicone coating
Ozcam, A. E., Spontak, R. J., & Genzer, J. (2014), ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6(24), 22544–22552.
Midblock-sulfonated triblock ionomers derived from a long-chain poly[styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene] triblock copolymer
Vargantwar, P. H., Brannock, M. C., Tauer, K., & Spontak, R. J. (2013), Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 1(10), 3430–3439. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ta00022a
Monte-carlo simulations of the order-disorder transition depression in ABA triblock copolymers with a short terminal block
Woloszczuk, S., Banaszak, M., & Spontak, R. J. (2013), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 51(5), 343–348.
Nanoscale distribution and segregation of midblock-selective co-penetrants in ABA triblock copolymer lamellae
Piephoff, D. E., Rasmussen, K. O., & Spontak, R. J. (2013), RSC Advances, 3(45), 22863–22867.
Polymer nanocomposites containing carbon nanofibers as soft printable sensors exhibiting strain-reversible piezoresistivity
Toprakci, H. A. K., Kalanadhabhatla, S. K., Spontak, R. J., & Ghosh, T. K. (2013), Advanced Functional Materials, 23(44), 5536–5542. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201300034
Ultrastretchable, cyclable and recyclable 1- and 2-dimensional conductors based on physically cross-linked thermoplastic elastomer gels
Mineart, K. P., Lin, Y. L., Desai, S. C., Krishnan, A. S., Spontak, R. J., & Dickey, M. D. (2013), Soft Matter, 9(32), 7695–7700.
Enhanced biomimetic performance of ionic polymer-metal composite actuators prepared with nanostructured block ionomers
Vargantwar, P. H., Roskov, K. E., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2012), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 33(1), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.201100535
Factors affecting time-composition equivalence in ternary block copolymer/cosolvent systems
Krishnan, A. S., & Spontak, R. J. (2012), Soft Matter, 8(5), 1334–1343.
Generation of functional PET microfibers through surface-initiated polymerization
Ozcam, A. E., Roskov, K. E., Spontak, R. J., & Genzer, J. (2012), Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22(12), 5855–5864.
Interfacial stabilization of bilayered nanolaminates by asymmetric block copolymers
Gozen, A. O., Genzer, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2012), Applied Physics Letters, 100(10).
Magnetic field-induced alignment of nanoparticles in electrospun microfibers
Roskov, K. E., Atkinson, J. E., Bronstein, L. M., & Spontak, R. J. (2012), RSC Advances, 2(11), 4603–4607.
Modification of melt-spun isotactic polypropylene and poly(lactic acid) bicomponent filaments with a premade block copolymer
Arvidson, S. A., Roskov, K. E., Pate, J. J., Spontak, R. J., Khan, S. A., & Gorga, R. E. (2012), Macromolecules, 45(2), 913–925. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma202246h
Prestrain-free dielectric elastomers based on acrylic thermoplastic elastomer gels: A morphological and (electro)mechanical property study
Vargantwar, P. H., Ozcam, A. E., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2012), Advanced Functional Materials, 22(10), 2100–2113. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201101985
Responsive PET nano/microfibers via surface-initiated polymerization
Ozcam, A. E., Roskov, K. E., Genzer, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2012), ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 4(1), 59–64.
Ternary phase behavior of a triblock copolymer in the presence of an endblock-selective homopolymer and a midblock-selective oil
Krishnan, A. S., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2012), Macromolecules, 45(15), 6056–6067.
(Electro)mechanical behavior of selectively solvated diblock/triblock copolymer blends
Vargantwar, P. H., Brelander, S. M., Krishnan, A. S., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2011), Applied Physics Letters, 99(24). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3666783
Block copolymer self-organization vs. interfacial modification in bilayered thin-film laminates
Gozen, A. O., Zhou, J. J., Roskov, K. E., Shi, A. C., Genzer, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2011), Soft Matter, 7(7), 3268–3272.
Deviation from time-composition equivalence in polymer solutions with selective cosolvents
Krishnan, A. S., & Spontak, R. J. (2011), AIP Advances, 1(4).
Electroactuation of solvated triblock copolymer dielectric elastomers: Decoupling the roles of mechanical prestrain and specimen thickness
Krishnan, A. S., Vargantwar, P. H., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2011), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 49(22), 1569–1582. https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.22331
Exceptional versatility of solvated block copolymer/ionomer networks as electroactive polymers
Vargantwar, P. H., Shankar, R., Krishnan, A. S., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2011), Soft Matter, 7(5), 1651–1655. https://doi.org/10.1039/c0sm01210f
Selectively solvated triblock copolymer networks under biaxial strain
Krishnan, A. S., Zanten, J. H., Seifert, S., Lee, B., & Spontak, R. J. (2011), Applied Physics Letters, 99(10).
Controlling the phase behavior of block copolymers via sequential block growth
Gozen, A. O., Gaines, M. K., Hamersky, M. W., Maniadis, P., Rasmussen, K. O., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2010), Polymer, 51(23), 5304–5308.
Cosolvent-regulated time-composition rheological equivalence in block copolymer solutions
Krishnan, A. S., Seifert, S., Lee, B., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2010), Soft Matter, 6(18), 4331–4334.
Nanoparticle network formation in nanostructured and disordered block copolymer matrices
Gaines, M. K., Smith, S. D., Samseth, J., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2010), Nanoscale Research Letters, 5(10), 1712–1718.
Transmission electron microtomography and polymer nanostructures
Jinnai, H., Spontak, R. J., & Nishi, T. (2010), Macromolecules, 43(4), 1675–1688.
Bi-directional Kirkendall effect in coaxial microtuble nanolaminate assemblies fabricated by atomic layer deposition
Peng, Q., Sun, X. Y., Spagnola, J. C., Saquing, C., Khan, S. A., Spontak, R. J., & Parsons, G. N. (2009), ACS Nano, 3(3), 546–554.
Competitive hydrogen-bonding in polymer solutions with mixed solvents
Shankar, R., Klossner, R. R., Weaver, J. T., Koga, T., Zanten, J. H., Krause, W. E., … Spontak, R. J. (2009), Soft Matter, 5(2), 304–307. https://doi.org/10.1039/b808479c
Mechanical and actuation behavior of electroactive nanostructured polymers
Shankar, R., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2009), Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical, 151(1), 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2009.01.002
Modification of PET surfaces with self-assembled monolayers of organosilane precursors
Ozcam, A. E., Efimenko, K., Jaye, C., Spontak, R. J., Fischer, D. A., & Genzer, J. (2009), Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 172(1-3), 95–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elspec.2009.03.012
Transmission electron microtomography in polymer research
Jinnai, H., & Spontak, R. J. (2009), Polymer, 50(5), 1067–1087.
Autophobicity-driven surface segregation and patterning of core-shell microgel nanoparticles
Wei, B., Gurr, P. A., Gozen, A. O., Blencowe, A., Solomon, D. H., Qiao, G. G., … Genzer, J. (2008), Nano Letters, 8(9), 3010–3016. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl802109x
Extended chemical crosslinking of a thermoplastic polyimide: Macroscopic and microscopic property development
Aberg, C. M., Ozcam, A. E., Majikes, J. M., Seyam, M. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2008), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 29(17), 1461–1466. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.200800230
Field-driven surface segregation of biofunctional species on electrospun PMMA/PEO microfibers
Sun, X. Y., Nobles, L. R., Borner, H. G., & Spontak, R. J. (2008), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 29(17), 1455–1460. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.200800163
In situ growth of Pd nanoparticles in crosslinked polymer matrices
Aberg, C. M., Seyam, M. A., Lassell, S. A., Bronstein, L. M., & Spontak, R. J. (2008), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 29(24), 1926–1931. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.200800505
Nanoparticle-regulated phase behavior of ordered block copolymers
Gaines, M. K., Smith, S. D., Samseth, J., Bockstaller, M. R., Thompson, R. B., Rasmussen, K. O., & Spontak, R. J. (2008), Soft Matter, 4(8), 1609–1612. https://doi.org/10.1039/b805540h
Thermodynamics and kinetic processes of polymer blends and block copolymers in the presence of pressurized carbon dioxide
Walker, T. A., Frankowski, D. J., & Spontak, R. J. (2008), Advanced Materials, 20(5), 879–898.
Triblock copolymer organogels as high-performance dielectric elastomers
Shankar, R., Krishnan, A. K., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2008), Macromolecules, 41(16), 6100–6109. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma071903g
Atomic layer deposition on electrospun polymer fibers as a direct route to Al2O3 microtubes with precise wall thickness control
Peng, Q., Sun, X. Y., Spagnola, J. C., Hyde, G. K., Spontak, R. J., & Parsons, G. N. (2007), Nano Letters, 7(3), 719–722. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl062948i
Chain-scission-induced intercalation as a facile route to polymer nanocomposites
Frankowski, D. J., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2007), Advanced Materials, 19(9), 1286–1290. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200600793
Dielectric elastomers as next-generation polymeric actuators
Shankar, R., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2007), Soft Matter, 3(9), 1116–1129. https://doi.org/10.1039/b705737g
Electroactive nanostructured polymers as tunable actuators
Shankar, R., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2007), Advanced Materials, 19(17), 2218–. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200602644
Electromechanical response of nanostructured polymer systems with no mechanical pre-strain
Shankar, R., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2007), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 28(10), 1142–1147. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.200700033
Field-driven biofunctionalization of polymer fiber surfaces during electrospinning
Sun, X. Y., Shankar, R., Borner, H. G., Ghosh, T. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2007), Advanced Materials, 19(1), 87–91. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200601345
Growth and crystallization of metal-containing block copolymer nanotubes in a selective solvent
Wang, X. S., Wang, H., Frankowski, D. J., Lam, P. G., Welch, P. M., Winnik, M. A., … Spontak, R. J. (2007), Advanced Materials, 19(17), 2279–. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200602230
Morphological development and rheological changes of phenoxy/SAN blends during in-situ polymerization
Guo, Q. P., Arends, P., Thomann, R., Spontak, R. J., & Gronski, W. (2007), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 45(18), 2614–2619. https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.21267
Silk fibroin membranes from solvent-crystallized silk fibroin/gelatin blends: Effects of blend and solvent composition
Gil, E. S., Frankowski, D. J., Hudson, S. M., & Spontak, R. J. (2007), Materials Science & Engineering. C, Biomimetic Materials, Sensors and Systems, 27(3), 426–431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2006.05.017
Stability of organically modified montmorillonites and their polystyrene nanocomposites after prolonged thermal treatment
Frankowski, D. J., Capracotta, M. D., Martin, J. D., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2007), Chemistry of Materials, 19(11), 2757–2767. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm061953k
Supramolecular nanomimetics: Replication of micelles, viruses, and other naturally occurring nanoscale objects
Maynor, B. W., Larue, I., Hu, Z., Rolland, J. P., Pandya, A., Fu, Q., … Desimone, J. M. (2007), Small (Weinheim An Der Bergstrasse, Germany), 3(5), 845–849.
3D nanometer-scale study of coexisting bicontinuous morphologies in a block copolymer/homopolymer blend
Jinnai, H., Hasegawa, H., Nishikawa, Y., Sevink, G. J. A., Braunfeld, M. B., Agard, D. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2006), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 27(17), 1424–1429. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.200600344
Mixed protein mends composed of gelatin and bombyx mori silk fibroin: Effects of so solvent-induced crystallization and composition
Gil, E. S., Frankowski, D. J., Bowman, M. K., Gozen, A. O., Hudson, S. M., & Spontak, R. J. (2006), Biomacromolecules, 7(3), 728–735. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm050622i
Molecularly asymmetric triblock copolymers as a single-molecule route to ordered bidisperse polymer brushes
Smith, S. D., Hamersky, M. W., Bowman, M. K., Rasmussen, K. O., & Spontak, R. J. (2006), Langmuir, 22(15), 6465–6468. https://doi.org/10.1021/la060616n
Selectivity- and size-induced segregation of molecular and nanoscale species in microphase-ordered triblock copolymers
Spontak, R. J., Shankar, R., Bowman, M. K., Krishnan, A. S., Hamersky, M. W., Samseth, J., … Rasmussen, K. O. (2006), Nano Letters, 6(9), 2115–2120. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl061205u
Tunable instability mechanisms of polymer thin films by molecular self-assembly
Wei, B., Lam, P. G., Braunfeld, M. B., Agard, D. A., Genzer, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2006), Langmuir, 22(21), 8642–8645. https://doi.org/10.1021/la061391j
Controlled foaming of polymer films through restricted surface diffusion and the addition of nanosilica particles or CO2-philic surfactants
Siripurapu, S., Desimone, J. M., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2005), Macromolecules, 38(6), 2271–2280. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma047991b
Effect of beta-sheet crystals on the thermal and rheological behavior of protein-based hydrogels derived from gelatin and silk fibroin
Gil, E. S., Spontak, R. J., & Hudson, S. M. (2005), Macromolecular Bioscience, 5(8), 702–709. https://doi.org/10.1002/mabi.200500076
Low-temperature reactive coupling at polymer-polymer interfaces facilitated by supercritical CO2
Harton, S. E., Stevie, F. A., Spontak, R. J., Koga, T., Rafailovich, M. H., Sokolov, J. C., & Ade, H. (2005), Polymer, 46(23), 10173–10179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2005.07.085
Phase behavior of triblock copolymers varying in molecular asymmetry
Hamersky, M. W., Smith, S. D., Gozen, A. O., & Spontak, R. J. (2005), Physical Review Letters, 95(16).
Property and morphology development in nanocomposite thermoplastic elastomer gels
Van Maanen, G. J., Seeley, S. L., Capracotta, M. D., White, S. A., Bukovnik, R. R., Hartmann, J., … Spontak, R. J. (2005), Langmuir, 21(7), 3106–3115. https://doi.org/10.1021/la047837i
Swelling behavior and morphological evolution of mixed gelatin/silk fibroin hydrogels
Gil, E. S., Frankowski, D. J., Spontak, R. J., & Hudson, S. M. (2005), Biomacromolecules, 6(6), 3079–3087. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm050396c
Tunable CO2 transport through mixed polyether membranes
Patel, N. P., Hunt, M. A., Lin-Gibson, S., Bencherif, S., & Spontak, R. J. (2005), Journal of Membrane Science, 251(02-Jan), 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2004.11.003
Dewetting behavior of a block copolymer/homopolymer thin film on an immiscible homopolymer substrate
Wei, B., Genzer, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Langmuir, 20(20), 8659–8667. https://doi.org/10.1021/la049562c
Dewetting of star nanogel/homopolymer blends from an immiscible homopolymer substrate
Wei, B., Gurr, P. A., Genzer, J., Qiao, G. G., Solomon, D. H., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Macromolecules, 37(21), 7857–7860. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma048636o
Effects of pressure and nanoparticle functionality on CO2-selective nanocomposites derived from crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol)
Patel, N. P., Zielinski, J. M., Samseth, J., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 205(18), 2409–2419.
Formation of dispersed nanostructures from poly(ferrocenyldimethylsilane-b-dimethylsiloxane) nanotubes upon exposure to supercritical carbon dioxide
Frankowski, D. J., Raez, J., Manners, I., Winnik, M. A., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Langmuir, 20(21), 9304–9314. https://doi.org/10.1021/la049646l
Gas-transport and thermal properties of a microphase-ordered poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide-b-styrene) triblock copolymer and its blends with poly(ethylene glycol)
Patel, N. P., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Macromolecules, 37(8), 2829–2838. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma049975k
Highly CO2-permeable and -selective membranes derived from crossfinked poly(ethylene glycol) and its nanocomposites
Patel, N. P., Miller, A. C., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Advanced Functional Materials, 14(7), 699–707. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200305136
Low-temperature, surface-mediated foaming of polymer films
Siripurapu, S., Desimone, J. M., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Advanced Materials, 16(12), 989–. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200306068
Mesoblends of polyether block copolymers with poly(ethylene glycol)
Patel, N. P., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Macromolecules, 37(4), 1394–1402. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0356257
Morphological, mechanical and gas-transport characteristics of crosslinked poly(propylene glycol): homopolymers, nanocomposites and blends
Patel, N. P., Aberg, C. M., Sanchez, A. M., Capracotta, M. D., Martin, J. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Polymer, 45(17), 5941–5950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2004.06.024
Platinum nanoparticles generated in functionality-enhanced reaction media based on polyoctadecylsiloxane with long-chain functional modifiers
Shtykova, E. V., Svergun, D. I., Chernyshov, D. M., Khotina, I. A., Valetsky, P. M., Spontak, R. J., & Bronstein, L. M. (2004), Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical, 108(20), 6175–6185.
Redox-active organometallic vesicles: Aqueous self-assembly of a diblock copolymer with a hydrophilic polyferrocenylsilane polyelectrolyte block
Power-Billard, K. N., Spontak, R. J., & Manners, I. (2004), Angewandte Chemie [International Edition in English], 43(10), 1260–1264.
Structure and catalytic properties of Pt-modified hyper-cross-linked polystyrene exhibiting hierarchical porosity
Bronstein, L. M., Goerigk, G., Kostylev, M., Pink, M., Khotina, I. A., Valetsky, P. M., … Spontak, R. J. (2004), Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical, 108(47), 18234–18242.
Surface-constrained foaming of polymer thin films with supercritical carbon dioxide
Siripurapu, S., Coughlan, J. A., Spontak, R. J., & Khan, S. A. (2004), Macromolecules, 37(26), 9872–9879. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0484983
Thermodynamics of poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(ethylmethylsiloxane) (PDMS/PEMS) blends in the presence of high-pressure CO2
Walker, T. A., Colina, C. M., Gubbins, K. E., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Macromolecules, 37(7), 2588–2595. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma034920o
Tunable microcellular morphologies from poly (ferrocenylsilane) ceramic precursors foamed in supercritical CO2
Frankowski, D. J., Fournier-Bidoz, S. B., Manners, I., Ozin, G. A., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2004), Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 205(18), 2398–2408.
Composite electrolytes from self-assembled colloidal networks
Walls, H. J., Riley, M. W., Fedkiw, P. S., Spontak, R. J., Baker, G. L., & Khan, S. A. (2003), Electrochimica Acta, 48(14-16), 2071–2077. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(03)00187-7
Controlled synthesis of novel metalated poly(aminohexyl)-(aminopropyl)silsesquioxane colloids
Bronstein, L. M., Linton, C. N., Karlinsey, R., Ashcraft, E., Stein, B. D., Svergun, D. I., … Zwanziger, J. W. (2003), Langmuir, 19(17), 7071–7083. https://doi.org/10.1021/la034291b
Effects of composition and matrix polarity on network development in organogels of poly(ethylene glycol) and dibenzylidene sorbitol
Wilder, E. A., Hall, C. K., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), Langmuir, 19(15), 6004–6013. https://doi.org/10.1021/la027081s
Gel network development inn AB, ABA, and AB/ABA block copolymer solutions inn a selective solvent
Wilder, E. A., White, S. A., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), ACS Symposium Series, 833, 248–261.
Highly CO2-permeable and selective polymer nanocomposite membranes
Patel, N. P., Miller, A. C., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), Advanced Materials, 15(9), 729–733. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200304712
Influence of polymer conformation on the shear modulus and morphology of polyallylamine and poly(alpha-L-lysine) hydrogels
Oliveira, E. D., Hirsch, S. G., Spontak, R. J., & Gehrke, S. H. (2003), Macromolecules, 36(16), 6189–6201. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma021468k
Nanocomposite electrolytes with fumed silica and hectorite clay networks: Passive versus active fillers
Walls, H. J., Riley, M. W., Singhal, R. R., Spontak, R. J., Fedkiw, P. S., & Khan, S. A. (2003), Advanced Functional Materials, 13(9), 710–717. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200304333
Nanofibrillar networks in poly(ethyl methacrylate) and its silica nanocomposites
Wilder, E. A., Braunfeld, M. B., Jinnai, H., Hall, C. K., Agard, D. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical, 107(42), 11633–11642.
Phase behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) blends in the presence of high-pressure carbon dioxide
Walker, T. A., Melnichenko, Y. B., Wignall, G. D., Lin, J. S., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, 204(17), 2064–2077. https://doi.org/10.1002/macp.200350075
Phase behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) blends with and without high-pressure CO2
Walker, T. A., Melnichenko, Y. B., Wignall, G. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2003, June),
Physical organogels composed of amphiphilic block copolymers and 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol
Wilder, E. A., Hall, C. K., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 267(2), 509–518. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9797(03)00619-2
Solvent-facilitated homopolymer sorption in swollen block copolymer matrices
Stevens, J. E., Thongruang, W., Patel, N. P., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), Macromolecules, 36(9), 3206–3209. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0215868
Sorption, transport, and structural evidence for enhanced free volume in poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne)/fumed silica nanocomposite membranes
Merkel, T. C., Freeman, B. D., Spontak, R. J., He, Z., Pinnau, I., Meakin, P., & Hill, A. J. (2003), Chemistry of Materials, 15(1), 109–123. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm020672j
Synthesis, characterization, and direct observation of star microgels
Gurr, P. A., Qiao, G. G., Solomon, D. H., Harton, S. E., & Spontak, R. J. (2003), Macromolecules, 36(15), 5650–5654. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma030122m
The molecular structure and intermolecular interactions of 1,3: 2,4-dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol
Wilder, E. A., Spontak, R. J., & Hall, C. K. (2003), Molecular Physics, 101(19), 3017–3027. https://doi.org/10.1080/0268970310001597327
ABA triblock copolymer gels modified with an A-compatible semicrystalline homopolymer
Walker, T. A., Semler, J. J., Leonard, D. N., Van Maanen, G. J., Bukovnik, R. R., & Spontak, R. J. (2002), Langmuir, 18(22), 8266–8270. https://doi.org/10.1021/la026117d
Block copolymer/homopolymer mesoblends: Preparation and characterization
Roberge, R. L., Patel, N. P., White, S. A., Thongruang, W., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2002), Macromolecules, 35(6), 2268–2276. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0115747
Bridged double percolation in conductive polymer composites: an electrical conductivity, morphology and mechanical property study
Thongruang, W., Spontak, R. J., & Balik, C. M. (2002), Polymer, 43(13), 3717–3725. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00180-5
Correlated electrical conductivity and mechanical property analysis of high-density polyethylene filled with graphite and carbon fiber
Thongruang, W., Spontak, R. J., & Balik, C. M. (2002), Polymer, 43(8), 2279–2286. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00043-5
Generation of microcellular foams of PVDF and its blends using supercritical carbon dioxide in a continuous process
Siripurapu, S., Gay, Y. J., Royer, J. R., Desimone, J. M., Spontak, R. J., & Khan, S. A. (2002), Polymer, 43(20), 5511–5520. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00407-X
Hydrophobically modified associative polymer solutions: Rheology and microstructure in the presence of nonionic surfactants
English, R. J., Laurer, J. H., Spontak, R. J., & Khan, S. A. (2002), Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 41(25), 6425–6435. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie020409s
Microphase-separated block copolymers comprising low surface energy fluorinated blocks and hydrophilic blocks: Synthesis and characterization
Arnold, M. E., Nagai, K., Spontak, R. J., Freeman, B. D., Leroux, D., Betts, D. E., … Linton, R. W. (2002), Macromolecules, 35(9), 3697–3707. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0119631
Multiscale dewetting of low-molecular-weight block copolymer ultrathin films
Leonard, D. N., Russell, P. E., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2002), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 23(3), 205–209. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3927(20020201)23:3<205::AID-MARC205>3.0.CO;2-X
Synthesis of metal-loaded poly(aminohexyl)(aminopropyl)silsesquioxane colloids and their self-organization into dendrites
Bronstein, L. M., Linton, C., Karlinsey, R., Stein, B., Svergun, D. I., Zwanziger, J. W., & Spontak, R. J. (2002), Nano Letters, 2(8), 873–876. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl025543g
Temperature-dependent property development in hydrogels derived from hydroxypropylcellulose
Hirsch, S. G., & Spontak, R. J. (2002), Polymer, 43(1), 123–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(01)00608-5
Topological coarsening of low-molecular-weight block copolymer ultrathin films by environmental AFM
Leonard, D. N., Spontak, R. J., Smith, S. D., & Russell, P. E. (2002), Polymer, 43(25), 6719–6726. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00640-7
Topological similarity of sponge-like bicontinuous morphologies differing in length scale
Jinnai, H., Nishikawa, Y., Ito, M., Smith, S. D., Agard, D. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2002), Advanced Materials, 14(22), 1615–1618. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1615::AID-ADMA1615>3.0.CO;2-S
Ultrapermeable, reverse-selective nanocomposite membranes
Merkel, T. C., Freeman, B. D., Spontak, R. J., He, Z., Pinnau, I., Meakin, P., & Hill, A. J. (2002), Science, 296(5567), 519–522. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1069580
Volume-exclusion effects in polyethylene blends filled with carbon black, graphite, or carbon fiber
Thongruang, W., Balik, C. M., & Spontak, R. J. (2002), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 40(10), 1013–1025. https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.10157
Anomalous phase inversion in polymer blends prepared by cryogenic mechanical alloying
Smith, A. P., Ade, H., Smith, S. D., Koch, C. C., & Spontak, R. J. (2001, March),
Cryogenic mechanical alloying as an alternative strategy for the recycling of tires
Smith, A. P., Ade, H., Koch, C. C., & Spontak, R. J. (2001), Polymer, 42(9), 4453–4457. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00804-1
Dynamic rheological behavior of DBS-induced poly(propyleneglycol) physical gels
Mercurio, D. J., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2001), Rheologica Acta, 40(1), 30–38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003970000119
Gas permeation properties of poly(1,1 '-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate), poly(1,1 '-dihydroperfluorooetyl methacrylate), and poly(styrene)-b-poly(1,1 '-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate) block copolymers
Arnold, M. E., Nagai, K., Freeman, B. D., Spontak, R. J., Betts, D. E., DeSimone, J. M., & Pinnau, I. (2001). Gas permeation properties of poly(1,1 ’-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate), poly(1,1 ’-dihydroperfluorooetyl methacrylate), and poly(styrene)-b-poly(1,1 ’-dihydroperfluorooctyl acrylate) block copolymers. Macromolecules, 34(16), 5611–5619. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma010355i,
Improved network development in bidisperse AB/ABA block copolymer gels
Spontak, R. J., Wilder, E. A., & Smith, S. D. (2001), Langmuir, 17(8), 2294–2297. https://doi.org/10.1021/la0015819
Interfacial and topological measurements of bicontinuous polymer morphologies - art. no. 010803
Jinnai, H., Kajihara, T., Watashiba, H., Nishikawa, Y., & Spontak, R. J. (2001), Physica. E, Low-Dimensional Systems & Nanostructures, 6401(1), 0803–.
Molecular, nanostructural and mechanical characteristics of lamellar triblock copolymer blends: Effects of molecular weight and constraint
Kane, L., Norman, D. A., White, S. A., Matsen, M. W., Satkowski, M. M., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2001), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 22(5), 281–296. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3927(20010301)22:5<281::AID-MARC281>3.0.CO;2-G
Morphological characteristics of 1,3: 2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol/poly(propylene glycol) organogels
Mercurio, D. J., & Spontak, R. J. (2001), Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical, 105(11), 2091–2098.
On the similarity of macromolecular responses to high-energy processes: mechanical milling vs. irradiation
Smith, A. P., Spontak, R. J., & Ade, H. (2001), Polymer Degradation and Stability, 72(3), 519–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0141-3910(01)00055-6
Ordering of cylindrical microdomains in thin films of hybrid isotropic/liquid crystalline triblock copolymers
Figueiredo, P., Geppert, S., Brandsch, R., Bar, G., Thomann, R., Spontak, R. J., … Muller-Buschbaum, P. (2001), Macromolecules, 34(2), 171–180. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma0011441
Perfectly-alternating linear (AB)(n) multiblock copolymers: Effect of molecular design on morphology and properties
Spontak, R. J., & Smith, S. D. (2001), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 39(9), 947–955. https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.1070
Platinum-containing hyper-cross-linked polystyrene as a modifier-free selective catalyst for L-sorbose oxidation
Sidorov, S. N., Volkov, I. V., Davankov, V. A., Tsyurupa, M. P., Valetsky, P. M., Bronstein, L. M., … Spontak, R. J. (2001), Journal of the American Chemical Society, 123(43), 10502–10510. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0107834
Addition of a block copolymer to polymer blends produced by cryogenic mechanical alloying
Smith, A. P., Ade, H., Koch, C. C., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2000), Macromolecules, 33(4), 1163–1172. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma9915475
Cryogenic mechanical alloying of poly(methyl methacrylate) with polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)
Smith, A. P., Ade, H., Balik, C. M., Koch, C. C., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (2000), Macromolecules, 33(7), 2595–2604. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma991453v
Direct measurement of interfacial curvature distributions in a bicontinuous block copolymer morphology
Jinnai, H., Nishikawa, Y., Spontak, R. J., Smith, S. D., Agard, D. A., & Hashimoto, T. (2000), Physical Review Letters, 84(3), 518–521.
Dispersion polymerization of polystyrene latex stabilized with novel grafted poly(ethylene glycol) macromers in 1- propanol/water
Shay, J. S., English, R. J., Spontak, R. J., Balik, C. M., & Khan, S. A. (2000), Macromolecules, 33(18), 6664–6671. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma992152o
High-energy mechanical milling of poly(methyl methacrylate), polyisoprene and poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)
Smith, A. P., Shay, J. S., Spontak, R. J., Balik, C. M., Ade, H., Smith, S. D., & Koch, C. C. (2000), Polymer, 41(16), 6271–6283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(99)00830-7
Metal nanoparticles grown in the nanostructured matrix of poly(octadecylsiloxane)
Bronstein, L. M., Chernyshov, D. M., Valetsky, P. M., Wilder, E. A., & Spontak, R. J. (2000, October),
Model acrylate-terminated urethane blends in toughened epoxies: a morphology and stress relaxation study
Spontak, R. J., Roberge, R. L., Vratsanos, M. S., & Starner, W. E. (2000), Polymer, 41(16), 6341–6349. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(99)00870-8
Morphology and gas barrier properties of thin SiOx coatings on polycarbonate: Correlations with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition conditions
Erlat, A. G., Wang, B. C., Spontak, R. J., Tropsha, Y., Mar, K. D., Montgomery, D. B., & Vogler, E. A. (2000), Journal of Materials Research, 15(3), 704–717.
Stress relaxation activation in rubber-modified polymer systems exhibiting controlled miscibility through blending
Spontak, R. J., & Vratsanos, M. S. (2000), Macromolecules, 33(6), 2290–2292. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma991851y
Structural changes in poly(ethylene terephthalate) induced by mechanical milling
Bai, C., Spontak, R. J., Koch, C. C., Saw, C. K., & Balik, C. M. (2000), Polymer, 41(19), 7147–7157. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(00)00048-3
Temperature-induced morphological evolution in polymer blends produced by cryogenic mechanical alloying
Smith, A. P., Spontak, R. J., Koch, C. C., Smith, S. D., & Ade, H. (2000), Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 274(1), 1–12.
Thermoplastic elastomers: fundamentals and applications
Spontak, R. J., & Patel, N. P. (2000), Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 5(5-6), 334–341.
Advances in self-ordering macromolecules and nanostructure design
Spontak, R. J., & Alexandridis, P. (1999), Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 4(2), 140–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0294(99)00023-0
Cobalt nanoparticle formation in the pores of hyper-cross-linked polystyrene: control of nanoparticle growth and morphology
Sidorov, S. N., Bronstein, L. M., Davankov, V. A., Tsyurupa, M. P., Solodovnikov, S. P., Valetsky, P. M., … Spontak, R. J. (1999), Chemistry of Materials, 11(11), 3210–3215. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm990274p
Effects of graphite content on the morphology and barrier properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites
Busick, D. N., Spontak, R. J., & Balik, C. M. (1999), Polymer, 40(22), 6023–6029. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(98)00826-X
Enhanced barrier performance of SiOx-modified polymer substrates: some morphological considerations
Wang, B. C., Tropsha, Y., Montgomery, D. B., Vogler, E. A., & Spontak, R. J. (1999), Journal of Materials Science Letters, 18(4), 311–315. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006687324051
Enhanced miscibility of low-molecular-weight polystyrene polyisoprene blends in supercritical CO2
Walker, T. A., Raghavan, S. R., Royer, J. R., Smith, S. D., Wignall, G. D., Melnichenko Y., K., … Spontak, R. J. (1999), Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical, 103(26), 5472–5476.
Grafted polymer tail loop mixtures differing in chain length
Driscoll, D. C., Gulati, H. S., Spontak, R. J., & Hall, C. K. (1999), Polymer, 40(18), 5207–5211. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(98)00804-0
High-energy cryogenic blending and compatibilizing of immiscible polymers
Smith, A., Spontak, R. J., Ade, H., Smith, S. D., & Koch, C. C. (1999), Advanced Materials, 11(15), 1277. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199910)11:15<1277::AID-ADMA1277>3.0.CO;2-9
Mesogel networks via selective midblock swelling of lamellar triblock copolymers
King, M. R., White, S. A., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (1999), Langmuir, 15(23), 7886–7889. https://doi.org/10.1021/la9816407
Modification of a thermoplastic elastomer gel through the addition of an endblock-selective homopolymer
Jackson, N. R., Wilder, E. A., White, S. A., Bukovnik, R., & Spontak, R. J. (1999), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 37(15), 1863–1872. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0488(19990801)37:15<1863::AID-POLB10>3.0.CO;2-X
Morphology and property development in block copolymer mesogels
King, M. R., White, S. A., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (1999), Langmuir, 15(1999), 7886–.
Morphology and rheology of SIS and SEPS triblock copolymers in the presence of a midblock-selective solvent
Laurer, J. H., Khan, S. A., Spontak, R. J., Satkowski, M. M., Grothaus, J. T., Smith, S. D., & Lin, J. S. (1999), Langmuir, 15(23), 7947–7955. https://doi.org/10.1021/la981441n
SiOx gas barrier coatings on polymer substrates: Morphology and gas transport considerations
Erlat, A. G., Spontak, R. J., Clarke, R. P., Robinson, T. C., Haaland, P. D., Tropsha, Y., … Vogler, E. A. (1999), Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical, 103(29), 6047–6055.
Solvent-regulated ordering in block copolymers
Alexandridis, P., & Spontak, R. J. (1999), Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 4(2), 130–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-0294(99)00022-9
Anomalous sorption in a poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer near the order-disorder transition
Hong, S. U., Stolken, S., Zielinski, J. M., Smith, S. D., Duda, J. L., & Spontak, R. J. (1998, February),
Bicontinuous morphologies in homologous multiblock copolymers and their homopolymer blends
Laurer, J. H., Hajduk, D. K., Dreckotter, S., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (1998), Macromolecules, 31(21), 7546–7549. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma9807872
Interfacial modification as a route to novel bilayered morphologies in binary block copolymer/homopolymer blends
Laurer, J. H., Smith, S. D., Samseth, J., Mortensen, K., & Spontak, R. J. (1998), Macromolecules, 31(15), 4975–4985. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma980200j
Microporous, responsive hydroxypropyl cellulose gels. 1. Synthesis and microstructure
Kabra, B. G., Gehrke, S. H., & Spontak, R. J. (1998), Macromolecules, 31(7), 2166–2173. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma970418q
Miscibilization of reactive polymers during early-stage spinodal decomposition
Yashin, V. V., & Spontak, R. J. (1998), AIChE Journal, 44(2), 416–426. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690440218
Mixtures of polymer tails and loops grafted to an impenetrable interface
Driscoll, D. C., Gulati, H. S., Spontak, R. J., & Hall, C. K. (1998), Polymer, 39(25), 6339–6346. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(97)10122-7
Morphological and isothermal diffusive probe analyses of low molecular weight diblock copolymers
Hong, S. U., Laurer, J. H., Zielinski, J. M., Samseth, J., Smith, S. D., Duda, J. L., & Spontak, R. J. (1998), Macromolecules, 31(7), 2174–2184. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma971516e
Thermoplastic elastomer gels. I. Effects of composition and processing on morphology and gel behavior
Laurer, J. H., Mulling, J. F., Khan, S. A., Spontak, R. J., & Bukovnik, R. (1998), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 36(13), 2379–2391.
Thermoplastic elastomer gels. II. Effects of composition and temperature on morphology and gel rheology
Laurer, J. H., Mulling, J. F., Khan, S. A., Spontak, R. J., Lin, J. S., & Bukovnik, R. (1998), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 36(14), 2513–2523.
Triblock copolymer/homopolymer blends: Conformational changes, microstructural transition and macrophase separation
Norman, D. A., Kane, L., White, S. A., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (1998), Journal of Materials Science Letters, 17(7), 545–549. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006565418979
X-ray microscopy of novel thermoplastic/liquid crystalline polymer blends by mechanical alloying
Smith, A. P., Bai, C., Ade, H., Spontak, R. J., Balik, C. M., & Koch, C. C. (1998), Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 19(11), 557–561. https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.1998.030191104
Compositionally symmetric diblock copolymer blends of moderate polydispersity
Kane, L., Satkowski, M. M., Smith, S. D., & Spontak, R. J. (1997), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 35(16), 2653–2658.
Evolution of VIMS at North Carolina State University
Balik, C. M., Spontak, R. J., & Weitzel, J. (1997), Journal of Materials Education, 19(1-2), 59.
From micelles to randomly connected, bilayered membranes in dilute block copolymer blends
Laurer, J. H., Fung, J. C., Sedat, J. W., Smith, S. D., Samseth, J., Mortensen, K., … Spontak, R. J. (1997), Langmuir, 13(8), 2177–2180. https://doi.org/10.1021/la9608876
Gas permeability and phase morphology of poly(1 (trimethylsilyl) 1 propyne)/poly(1 phenyl 1 propyne) blends
Toy, L. G., Freeman, B. D., Spontak, R. J., Morisato, A., & Pinnau, I. (1997), Macromolecules, 30(16), 4766–4769. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma970091t
Macromolecular self-assembly in dilute sequence-controlled block copolymer/homopolymer blends
Laurer, J. H., Ashraf, A., Smith, S. D., Samseth, J., & Spontak, R. J. (1997), Supramolecular Science, 4(1-2), 121–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-5677(96)00048-X
Microstructural analysis of a cubic bicontinuous morphology in a neat SiS triblock copolymer
Laurer, J. H., Hajduk, D. A., Fung, J. C., Sedat, J. W., Smith, S. D., Gruner, S. M., … Spontak, R. J. (1997), Macromolecules, 30(13), 3938–3941. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma970449l
Phase behaviour of aqueous hydroxypropylcellulose mesophase mixtures: Molecular weight considerations
Wang, B. C., & Spontak, R. J. (1997), Liquid Crystals, 22(3), 359–365. https://doi.org/10.1080/026782997209432
Phase miscibility and morphological behavior of disordered 'random' diblock copolymer/homopolymer blends
Phase miscibility and morphological behavior of disordered ’random’ diblock copolymer/homopolymer blends. (1997). Langmuir, 13(1997), 2250. https://doi.org/10.1021/la960807y,
Salting-in behavior of isotropic and anisotropic aqueous hydroxypropylcellulose solutions
Prevysh, V. A., Wang, B. C., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (1997), Colloid & Polymer Science, 275(3), 284–287.
Self organization and polyolefin nucleation efficacy of 1,3/2,4 di p methylbenzylidene sorbitol
Shepard, T. A., Delsorbo, C. R., Louth, R. M., Walborn, J. L., Norman, D. A., Harvey, N. G., & Spontak, R. J. (1997), Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics, 35(16), 2617–2628. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0488(19971130)35:16<2617::AID-POLB5>3.0.CO;2-M
X-ray microscopy and NEXAFS spectroscopy of macrophase-separated random block copolymer/homopolymer blends
Smith, A. P., Laurer, J. H., Ade, H. W., Smith, S. D., Ashraf, A., & Spontak, R. J. (1997, February),
The introductory course in materials thermodynamics: Strategies toward improved instructional effectiveness
Prebola, J. L., & Spontak, R. J. (1997), Journal of Materials Education, 19(1997), 47.
Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in
Roberts, J. E., Spontak, R. J., & Khan, S. A. (1996), AIChE Journal, 42(8), 2319–2326.
Effect of molecular architecture on DBS-induced block copolymer gels: A rheological study
Nunez, C. M., Whitfield, J. K., Mercurio, D. J., Ilzhoefer, J. R., Spontak, R. J., & Khan, S. A. (1996), Macromolecular Symposia, 106, 275–286.
A novel approach to black liquor viscosity reduction using salt additives
Roberts, J. E., Spontak, R. J., Jameel, H., & Khan, S. A. (1996), TAPPI Journal, 79(8), 167–174.
Evidence of hierarchical order in an amphiphilic block terpolymer gel
Ilzhoefer, J. R., Broom, B. C., Nepa, S. M., Vogler, E. A., Khan, S. A., & Spontak, R. J. (1995), Journal of Physical Chemistry (Easton, Pa.), 99(32), 12069–12071.
Tailored viscosity reduction in aqueous hydroxypropyl cellulose solutions
Prevysh, V. A., Spontak, R. J., & Khan, S. A. (1995), Polymers in Medicine, 137–142.

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