Nanoscience, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research (NNNR)

Professor Narayan and his colleagues started nanomaterials research in the late 1970s and published the first seminal paper on nickel colloids (nanodots) in crystalline ceramics in Physical Review Letters in 1981.  These nanodots produced exciting modifications in optical and mechanical properties of ceramic materials and led to numerous publications, a U.S. patent and an IR-100 Award.  The nickel nanodots grew epitaxially inside their MgO host, despite the lattice misfit ranging from 3.0 percent to 31.3 percent on different faces.  This crystal growth is now understood to occur via domain matching epitaxy, where integral multiples of lattice planes match across the interfaces.  This research has now been extended to thin films, where nanodots can be grown in a controlled way via 3-D self-assembly with a recent US Patent.  The nanodot/nanograin has also been used in bulk and thin films to produce novel mechanical properties, making tougher and stronger materials for coating and related applications.  Connected nanodots or layers of varying thickness have also been used for the quantum confinement of carriers in GaInN/GaN superlattices and enhanced light emission efficiency.  Kopin Corporation, working with NCSU, has used this “nanopocket” technology to create next-generation high-efficiency Kopin CyberLite LEDs.

Novel materials with exotic properties can be created by manipulating atomic arrangements and associated electron and new virtual particle distributions. This manipulation and control can be provided by fast nonequilibrium processes beyond those dictated by equilibrium thermodynamic phase diagrams. We have used high-power pulsed photonic sources (lasers) to provide a controlled source of electronic excitations from which energy can be transferred to phonons (atoms) with relaxation times of the order of picoseconds. Thus, these lasers can be used to control defects and selectively heat, melt and quench layers of materials and transform them into new states of matter. This approach has led to discoveries of Q-carbon and Q-BN, and direct conversion of carbon into diamond and h-BN into c-BN at ambient temperature and pressure, thus demonstrating the power of nonequilibrium activation and processing. On the other hand, under equilibrium, direct conversion of carbon into diamond occurs at 5000K and 120,000 Atmospheres under highly inert conditions. Among its many unique and unprecedented properties, Q-carbon is harder (as much as 70%) than diamond, it is ferromagnetic in pure form and it can be made superconducting upon doping with boron with transition temperature over 57K (highest for BCS superconductors). This record superconducting transition temperature is expected to go still higher with increasing B-concentration in Q-carbon. Hardness and superconductivity go parallel, as , where λ is the electron-phonon coupling constant related to ratio of spring constants, ω is averaged phonon frequency, M is averaged atomic mass, and ɳ is the McMillan-Hopfield parameter with units of spring constant and is related to strength of electronic response of electrons near the Fermi surface to atomic perturbations. Experimental results on Q-carbon hardness and superconductivity are in good agreement with our theoretical models.

Magnetic nanodots stand to revolutionize information storage.  Assuming 1 bit of information in each 6nm nanodot, we can achieve information storage beyond 10 Terabits per chip.  One terabit can store 25 million pages of information. Selected papers related to nanostructured materials, addressing electronic, photonic, optical and mechanical properties are shown below.

Patents:

  1. J. Narayan, A. K. Sharma and J. F. Muth, “ Optoelectronic and microelectronic Devices including cubic ZnMgO and CdMgO Alloys-New Materials,” US Patent No. 6,423,983 B1 (July 23, 2002), Licensed by Kopin Corp.
  2. J. Narayan, A. K. Sharma and J. F. Muth, “ Optoelectronic and microelectronic Devices including cubic ZnMgO and CdMgO Alloys-New Processing,” US Patent Granted, Licensed by Kopin Corp.
  3. J. Narayan and A. Tiwari, “ Methods for Forming Nanodot Arrays in a Matrix Based on Differences of Free Energy of Oxidation, and Nanodot Structures Fabricated Thereby,” US Patent 5051-621PR Granted ( December 2, 2002).
  4. J. Narayan et al., “ Efficient Light Emitting Diodes and Lasers,” US Patent #6,881,983 (April 19, 2005)
  5. J. Narayan et al., “ Electrode for p-type gallium nitride based semiconductors,” US patent # 6,734,091( May 11, 2004).
  6. T. Rawdonwicz and J. Narayan, “ Growth and integration of epitaxial GaN and with silicon-based devices,” US patent 2005/0124161A1 (June 9, 2005).
  7. J. Narayan, “Domain Epitaxy for Thin Film Epitaxy,” US Patent # 6,955, 985 (October 18, 2005).
  8. J. Narayan, “ Light-emitting diode device geometry,” US Patent # 6,847, 052 (January 25, 2005).
  9. J. Narayan, “Q- carbon discovery and conversion of carbon into diamond,” US Patent #62245018 (2015)
  10. J. Narayan, ” Q-BN discovery and conversion of h-BN into c-BN,” US Patent #62202202
  11. J. Narayan, “Lubricant having nanoparticles and microparticles to enhance fuel efficiency, and a laser synthesis method to create dispersed nanoparticles, China patent” # ZL200880105592.6 (8/28/2013)
  12. J. Narayan, “Lubricant having nanoparticles and microparticles to enhance fuel efficiency, and a laser synthesis method to create dispersed nanoparticles,” India Patent No. 258967(2/18/2014)

Patents Pending:

  1. Low-field Giant Magnetoresistance by J. Narayan and A. Tiwari: US Patent Pending.
  2. P-Type Doping of Zinc Oxide by H. Porter and J. Narayan: US Patent Pending.
  3. Methods for Forming Single-Crystal Films of New Phase MoOx with Useful Properties by J. Narayan: US Patent Pending.
  4. Novel Compositions for Transparent Conducting Oxides by J. Narayan; US Patent Pending.

Nanostructured Materials

  • Narayan; Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); Chen; Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)
    Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers. United States Patent 4,376,755, March 15, 1983.
  • Narayan J, Chen Y, Tsang KL
    Metallic Nickel Colloids In Plastically Deformed Nickel-Doped MgO Crystals.
    Philosophical Magazine A-Physics Of Condensed Matter Structure Defects And Mechanical Properties 55 (6): 807-814 Jun 1987.
  • Narayan J, Chen Y
    Physical-Properties Of Oxides Containing Metal Precipitates.
    Philosophical Magazine A-Physics Of Condensed Matter Structure Defects And Mechanical Properties 49 (4): 475-492 1984.
  • Narayan J, Chen Y, Moon R M, et al.
    Characterization Of Metal Precipitates In Magnesium-Oxide.
    Philosophical Magazine A-Physics Of Condensed Matter Structure. DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 49 (2): 287-300 1984.
  • Narayan J, Chen Y, Moon R M
    Nickel Colloids In Reduced Nickel-Doped Magnesium-Oxide.
    PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 46 (22): 1491-1494 1981.
  • Zhu XK, Zhang X, Wang H, Narayan J, et al.
    Synthesis of bulk nanostructured Zn by combinations of cryomilling and powder consolidation by room temperature milling: optimizing mechanical properties.
    SCRIPTA MATERIALIA 49 (5): 429-433 SEP 2003.
  • Conrad H, Narayan J
    Mechanisms for grain size hardening and softening in Zn.
    ACTA MATERIALIA 50 (20): 5067-5078 DEC 3 2002.
  • Zhang X, Wang H, Scattergood RO, Narayan J, et al.
    Studies of deformation mechanisms in ultra-fine-grained and nanostructured Zn.
    ACTA MATERIALIA 50 (19): 4823-4830 NOV 14 2002.
  • Zhang X, Wang H, Scattergood RO, Narayan J, et al.
    Modulated oscillatory hardening and dynamic recrystallization in cryomilled nanocrystalline Zn.
    ACTA MATERIALIA 50 (16): 3995-4004 SEP 20 2002 .
  • Conrad H, Narayan J
    Mechanism for grain size softening in nanocrystalline Zn.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81 (12): 2241-2243 SEP 16 2002.
  • Narayan J, Venkatesan RK, Kvit A
    Structure and properties of nanocrystalline zinc films.
    JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH 4 (3): 265-269 JUN 2002.
  • Zhang X, Wang H, Scattergood RO, Narayan J, et al.
    Mechanical properties of cyromilled nanocrystalline Zn studied by the miniaturized disk bend test.
    ACTA MATERIALIA 50 (13): 3527-3533 AUG 1 2002.
  • Zhang X, Wang H, Scattergood RO, Narayan J, et al.
    Tensile elongation (110%) observed in ultrafine-grained Zn at room temperature.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81 (5): 823-825 JUL 29 2002.
  • Zhang X, Wang H, Kassem M, Narayan J, et al.
    Preparation of bulk ultrafine-grained and nanostructured Zn, Al and their alloys by in situ consolidation of powders during mechanical attrition.
    SCRIPTA MATERIALIA 46 (9): 661-665 MAY 10 2002.
  • Zhang XH, Wang HY, Kassem M, Narayan J, et al.
    Origins of stored enthalpy in cryomilled nanocrystalline Zn.
    JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH 16 (12): 3485-3495 DEC 2001.
  • Wang H, Sharma A, Kvit A, Narayan J, et al.
    Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline and epitaxial TiN films on (100) silicon.
    JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH 16 (9): 2733-2738 SEP 2001.
  • Zhang X, Wang H, Narayan J, et al.
    Evidence for the formation mechanism of nanoscale microstructures in cryomilled Zn powder.
    ACTA MATERIALIA 49 (8): 1319-1326 MAY 8 2001.
  • Conrad H, Narayan J
    On the grain size softening in nanocrystalline materials.
    SCRIPTA MATERIALIA 42 (11): 1025-1030 MAY 31 2000.
  • Godbole VP, Dovidenko K, Sharma AK, Narayan J, et al.
    Thermal reactions and micro-structure of TiN-AlN layered nano-composites.
    MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 68 (2): 85-90 DEC 27 1999.
  • Rawdanowicz TA, Godbole V, Narayan J, et al.
    The hardnesses and elastic moduli of pulsed laser deposited multilayer AlN/TiN thin films.
    COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING 30 (7): 657-665 1999.
  • Godbole VP, Narayan R, Xu Z, Narayan J, et al.
    Diamond films and composites on cobalt-chromium alloys.
    MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 58 (3): 251-257 MAR 29 1999.

GaN-based Materials
1) III-nitrides: Growth, characterization, and properties
SC Jain, M Willander, J Narayan, R Van Overstraeten, Journal of Applied Physics 87, 965 (2000)
Cited by AIP in 2014 Physics Nobel Prize with over thousand citations.
2) Domain epitaxy: A unified paradigm for thin film growth
J Narayan, BC Larson, Journal of Applied Physics 93 (1), 278 (2003)
3) Defects and interfaces in epitaxial ZnO/α-Al2O3 and AlN/ZnO/α-Al2O3 heterostructures
J Narayan, K Dovidenko, AK Sharma, S Oktyabrsky, Journal of Applied Physics 84 (5), 2597 (1998)

4) Epitaxial growth of AlN thin films on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition
RD Vispute, J Narayan, H Wu, K Jagannadham, Journal of applied physics 77 (9), 4724 (1995)

5) High-quality epitaxial aluminum nitride layers on sapphire by pulsed laser
deposition, RD Vispute, H Wu, J Narayan, Applied physics letters 67 (11), 1549 (1995)
6) Aluminum nitride films on different orientations of sapphire and siliconK Dovidenko, S Oktyabrsky, J Narayan, M Razeghi, Journal of applied physics 79, 2439 (1996)
7) Epitaxial growth in large‐lattice‐mismatch systems,
T Zheleva, K Jagannadham, J Narayan, Journal of applied physics 75 (2), 860 (1994)

8) Characteristics of stacking faults in AlN thin films
K Dovidenko, S Oktyabrsky, J 
Narayan, Journal of applied physics 82 (9), 4296 (1997)
9) Formation of epitaxial Au/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-GaN, J Narayan, H Wang, TH Oh,
HK Choi, JCC Fan, Applied physics letters 81 (21), 3978 (2002)
10) Characteristics of nucleation layer and epitaxy in GaN/sapphire heterostructures
J Narayan, P Pant, A Chugh, H Choi, JCC Fan, Journal of applied physics 99, 054313 (2006)
11) Epitaxial GaN on Si(111): Process control of SiNx interlayer formation
TA Rawdanowicz
; J Narayan, J, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 85, 133 (2004)
12) Effect of thickness variation in high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes, J 
Narayan, J; Wang, H; Ye, JL; et al., APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81, 841 (2002) (Nano-Pocket LEDs)

13) Recent progress in thin film epitaxy across the misfit scale (2011 Acta Gold Medal
Paper), J Narayan, ACTA MATERIALIA Volume: 61, 2703 (2013)
14) J. Narayan, Growth and integration of epitaxial gallium nitride films with silicon‐based devices,
US Patent # 7,803, 717.
15) J. Narayan, Bonding pad for gallium nitride‐based light‐emitting devices, US Patent # 7,122,841.
16) J. Narayan, Domain epitaxy for thin film growth, US Patent # 6, 955, 985.
17) J. Narayan, Efficient light emitting diodes and lasers, US Patent # 6,881,983. (Invention of Nano‐
Pocket LEDs)
18) J. Narayan, Light‐emitting diode device geometry, US Patent # 6,847,052.
19) J. Narayan, Electrode for p‐type gallium nitride‐based semiconductors, US Patent # 6,734,091.
20) J. Narayan, Method for making optoelectronic and microelectronic devices including cubic
ZnMgO and/or CdMgO alloys, US Patent # 6,518,077.
21) J. Narayan, Optoelectronic and microelectronic devices including cubic ZnMgO and/or CdMgO alloys,
US Patent # 6,423,983.

Nanostructured Optical, Magnetic and Electronic Materials

  • Bhosle V, Tiwari A, Narayan J. (2006). Metallic conductivity and metal-semiconductor transition in Ga-doped ZnO. APPL PHYS LETT 88(3):32106-1.
  • Ramachandran S, Tiwari A, Narayan J, Prater JT. (2005). Epitaxial growth and properties of Zn1-xVxO diluted magnetic semiconductor thin films. APPL PHYS LETT 87(17):172502-1.
  • Bhosle V, Tiwari A, Narayan J. (2005). Epitaxial growth and properties of MoOx(2<x<2.75) films. J APPL PHYS 97(8):83539-1.
  • Narayan J. (2005a). New frontiers in thin film growth and nanomaterials. METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS A (PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE) 36B(1B):5-22.
  • Narayan J. (2005b). New frontiers in thin film growth and nanomaterials. METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B (PROCESS METALLURGY AND MATERIALS PROCESSING SCIENCE) 36B(1):5-22.
  • Narayan J, Tiwari A. (2004). Novel methods of forming self-assembled nanostructured materials: Ni nanodots in Al2O3 and TiN matrices. JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 4(7):726-32.
  • Narayan J, Pant P, Chugh A, Choi H, Fan J C C. (2006). Characteristics of nucleation layer and epitaxy in GaN/sapphire heterostructures. J APPL PHYS 99(5):54313-1.
  • Tiwari A, Narayan J, Sudhakar N, Rajeev KP. (2004a). Growth of single-phase c-axis aligned La1.2Ca1.8Mn2O7 films on SrTiO3 (001). SOLID STATE COMMUN 132(12):863-6.
  • Tiwari A, Jin C, Narayan J, Park M. (2004b). Electrical transport in ZnO1-d; films: transition from band-gap insulator to Anderson localized insulator. J APPL PHYS 96(7):3827-30.
  • Oh;Tchang-Hun (Sharon, MA); Choi; Hong K. (Sharon, MA); Tsaur; Bor-Yeu (Lincoln, MA); Fan; John C. C. (Brookline, MA); Liao; Shirong (North Easton, MA); Narayan; Jagdish (Raleigh, NC).
    Electrode for p-type gallium nitride-based semiconductors.
    United States Patent 6,734,091, May 11, 2004.
  • J. Narayan and A. Tiwari
    Novel Methods of Forming Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials: Ni Nanodots in Al2O3 and TiN Matrices.
    Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Volume 4, Number 7 (September 2004) 726-732.
  • Rawdanowicz TA, Narayan J
    Epitaxial GaN on Si(111): Process control of SiNx interlayer formation.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 85 (1): 133-135 JUL 5 2004.
  • Ramachandran S, Tiwari A, Narayan J
    Zn0.9Co0.1O-based diluted magnetic semiconducting thin films.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 84 (25): 5255-5257 JUN 21 2004.
  • Kumar D, Yarmolenko S, Sarkar J, Narayan J ,et al.
    Pulsed laser deposition assisted novel synthesis of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles.
    COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING 35 (2): 149-155 2004.
  • Kumar D, Yarmolenko S, Sarkar J, Narayan J, et al.
    Pulsed laser deposition assisted novel synthesis of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles.
    COMPOSITES PART B-ENGINEERING 35 (2): 149-155 2004.
  • Tiwari A, Chugh A, Jin C, Narayan J, et al.
    Role of self-assembled gold nanodots in improving the electrical and optical characteristics of zinc oxide films.
    JOURNAL OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 3 (5): 368-371 OCT 2003 .
  • Wang H, Zhang X, Gupta A, Narayan J ,et al.
    Growth and characteristics of TaN/TiN superlattice structures.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 83 (15): 3072-3074 OCT 13 2003.
  • Zhou H, Kumar D, Kvit A, Narayan J ,et al.
    Formation of self-assembled epitaxial nickel nanostructures.
    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 94 (8): 4841-4846 OCT 15 2003.
  • Chugh A, Tiwari A, Kvit A, Narayan J ,et al.
    A novel technique for making self-encapsulated and self-aligned copper films.
    MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING B-SOLID STATE MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY 103 (1): 45-48 SEP 25 2003.
  • Narayan J, Larson BC
    Domain epitaxy: A unified paradigm for thin film growth.
    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 93 (1): 278-285 JAN 1 2003.
  • Narayan J, Oktyabrsky S
    Formation of misfit dislocations in thin film heterostructures.
    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 92 (12): 7122-7127 DEC 15 2002.
  • Kumar D, Pennycook SJ, Lupini A, Narayan J ,et al.
    Synthesis and atomic-level characterization of Ni nanoparticles in Al2O3 matrix.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81 (22): 4204-4206 NOV 25 2002.
  • Narayan J, Wang H, Oh TH, Narayan J ,et al.
    Formation of epitaxial Au/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-GaN.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81 (21): 3978-3980 NOV 18 2002.
  • Lopatin S, Pennycook S J, Narayan J, et al.
    Z-contrast imaging of dislocation cores at the GaAs/Si interface.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81 (15): 2728-2730 OCT 7 2002.
  • Wang H, Tiwari A, Zhang X, Narayan J ,et al.
    Copper diffusion characteristics in single-crystal and polycrystalline TaN.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81 (8): 1453-1455 AUG 19 2002.
  • Narayan J, Wang H, Ye JL, Narayan J ,et al.
    Effect of thickness variation in high-efficiency InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 81 (5): 841-843 JUL 29 2002.
  • Kumar D, Zhou H, Nath TK, Narayan J ,et al.
    Improved magnetic properties of self-assembled epitaxial nickel nanocrystallites in thin-film ceramic matrix.
    JOURNAL OF MATERIALS RESEARCH 17 (4): 738-742 APR 2002.
  • Tiwari A, Jin C, Kvit A, Narayan J ,et al.
    Structural, optical and magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconducting Zn1-xMnxO films.
    SOLID STATE COMMUNICATIONS 121 (6-7): 371-374 2002.
  • Wang H, Tiwari A, Kvit A, Narayan J ,et al.
    Epitaxial growth of TaN thin films on Si(100) and Si(111) using a TiN buffer layer.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 80 (13): 2323-2325 APR 1 2002.
  • Narayan J, Sharma AK, Kvit A, Narayan J ,et al.
    Novel cubic ZnxMg1-xO epitaxial hetero structures on Si (100) substrates.
    SOLID STATE COMMUNICATIONS 121 (1): 9-13 2002.
  • Kumar D, Zhou H, Nath TK, Narayan J ,et al.
    Self-assembled epitaxial and polycrystalline magnetic nickel nanocrystallites.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 79 (17): 2817-2819 OCT 22 2001.
  • Kumar D, Narayan J, Nath TK, Narayan J, et al.
    Tunable magnetic properties of metal ceramic composite thin films.
    SOLID STATE COMMUNICATIONS 119 (2): 63-66 2001.
  • Kumar D, Narayan J, Kvit AV, Narayan J ,et al.
    High coercivity and superparamagnetic behavior of nanocrystalline iron particles in alumina matrix.
    JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS 232 (3): 161-167 JUL 2001.
  • Jain SC, Willander M, Narayan J, et al.
    III-nitrides: Growth, characterization, and properties.
    JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 87 (3): 965-1006 FEB 1 2000.
  • Teng CW, Muth JF, Kolbas RM, Narayan J ,et al.
    Quantum confinement of E-1 and E-2 transitions in Ge quantum dots embedded in an Al2O3 or an AlN matrix.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 76 (1): 43-45 JAN 3 2000.
  • Hassan KM, Sharma AK, Narayan J, et al.
    Optical and structural studies of Ge nanocrystals embedded in AlN matrix fabricated by pulsed laser deposition.
    APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 75 (9): 1222-1224 AUG 30 1999